Swimming Notes. Department of Physical Education

1. Introduction
Swimming is the art of stand and move, using your arms and legs, on or under water. Activity may be performed as entertainment or as a competitive sport. Because human beings are not instinctively swimmers, swimming is a skill that must be learned. Unlike other land animals given momentum in the water, which is in essence a form of walking, humans have had to develop a series of strokes and body movements that propel him into the water with power and speed. These movements and styles are based on the evolution of competitive swimming as a sport.

Swimming can be used in any type of enclosure of water large enough to allow free movement and not too cold, hot or turbulent. The currents and tides can be dangerous, but also pose a challenge to demonstrate the strength and courage of the swimmers, as can be seen with the many successful attempts to cross the English Channel.

Swimming was a highly respected sport in the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome, especially as a training method for warriors. In Japan competitions were held in the first century BC However, during the Middle Ages in Europe the practice was almost forgotten, and immersion in water is associated with the continuing epidemic of the time. By the nineteenth century this prejudice disappeared, and in the twentieth, swimming had come to be considered a valuable system of physical therapy and exercise as there is generally more beneficial. No other exercise use many muscles of the body and is so intense. In addition, the increased influx of swimmers and better construction techniques and heating, have greatly increased the number of public pools and outdoor decks around the world. The private pool, which was once a sign of exceptional privilege, it is increasingly common.

Doing a bit of history, the swimming style known in Western Europe in the nineteenth century was the breaststroke, and crawl in its early version was first seen when
1844 held a swimming competition in England, as was used by American Indians who participated, even one of them won and another was second. Despite this
success, the English gentlemen considered it rude and Europe as it made little splash
much, preferring to keep swimming the breaststroke, allowing them to have their heads above water. Actually it was not only American Indians who used it, but also the West African and Native Pacific Islanders swam crawl variants.

The main problem to learning to swim is the fear of water or nervousness, which causes muscle tension. Much has been done in developing methods to reduce this psychological barrier. One way has been begin to teach children at a young age. Although it is possible to teach older people, the sooner you learn to swim the individual, the easier it becomes. People when teaching to swim it is important to learn to coordinate hand and leg movements with breathing. Their learning has been incorporated into the curricula of schools in many parts of the world. During World War II teaching techniques developed for large groups, they taught courses for the troops as part of their training for combat.

There are five recognized swimming strokes, which have been used since the late nineteenth century. These are: front crawl (also called freestyle, because you can choose in freestyle competitions), the first version was given by John Arthur Trudgen English swimmer in the 1870's, back, who used it first U.S. swimmer Harry Hebner in the 1912 Olympic Games, breaststroke, the oldest style, known since the seventeenth century, butterfly, developed in the 1930's by Henry Myers and other U.S. swimmers and was recognized in 1950 as an independent style, and arm side, basic style in the early years of competition, but now only used in non-competitive swimming.

2.1 Crawl

In this style, a swimmer's arms move in the air with the palm down, ready to enter the water, with their elbow relaxed, while the other arm goes under the water. The legs move according to what in recent years has evolved as a kick oscillating, reciprocating the hips up and down with the legs relaxed, feet and toes inward to a point. For each complete cycle of the arms are held two to eight kicks swing. This style is very important to breathe properly. It may take a full breath for each cycle of the arms, inhaling through the mouth to turn the head to one side when you move the arm and then exhaling under water when the arm moves back.

2.2 Breaststroke
In this style, the swimmer floats facedown, with arms pointing to the forehead, palms, and executes the following sequence of horizontal movements: open your arms back until they are in line with the shoulders, always have them above or below the water surface. They shrink the legs to bring them closer to the body, knees and toes out, and then stretched with a pulse while the arms are back to starting point begins the cycle again. The swimmer breathes underwater. The strokes must be lateral, not vertical. This is a very important point discussed in competitive swimming.
2.4. Backstroke

2.3 The Backstroke
This style is similar to freestyle, but the fleet swimmer back in the water. The sequence of movements is an alternative: an arm in the air with the palm of the hand coming out from under the leg, while the other drives the body in the water. A swinging kick is also used here  .

3. Competition
The swimming competition includes individual and team tests. In mixed races using the four types of competition-crawl, back, breaststroke and butterfly in a specific order for individuals and other equipment. In the team relay events consist of four swimmers who take turns, the total time determines the winner.

In international competitions test length between 50 and 1,500 meters. World records are only recognized when set in pools of 50 m in length. Competitions have become so strong that it has been necessary to define precise rules
for different styles and to regulate the physical size and shape of the pool, equipment type, water temperature are all important elements in determining the performance. Electronic devices for measuring and timing have almost replaced the judges and timekeepers in swimming events.
4. History

In modern competitive swimming was introduced in Britain in the late eighteenth century. The first organization was the National Swimming Society, founded in London in 1837. In 1869 he created the Metropolitan Swimming Clubs Association, which later became the Amateur Swimming Association (ASA). The first national champion was Tom Morris, who won a mile race on the River Thames in 1869. In the late nineteenth century, the swimming competition was established in Australia and New Zealand and several European countries had already established their respective federations. In the U.S., amateur clubs began to hold competitions in the 1870's.

The first Olympic Games of the modern era, held in Athens in 1896, also included swimming. In 1908 he organized the Federation International de Natation Amateur for racing fans to celebrate. The women's competition was first included in the 1912 Olympic Games. International competitions have been sponsored in Europe by amateur clubs to swimming from the late nineteenth century. However, until the 1920's these competitions were not defined as stable and regular. Britain had created some competition between the member nations of the British Empire before 1910. The first official game of the British Empire in swimming was a major component, which were held in Canada in
1930. Swimming now plays a key role in several other international competitions, the most prominent Pan American Games and Asian and Mediterranean competitions.

The World Championship was first held in 1973 and takes place every four years. The European Championship was first held in Budapest in 1926, there were five races between 1927 and 1947, from 1950 to 1974 which played at intervals of four years and, since 1981, takes place every two years. There was a World Cup in 1979 when the U.S. won both the men's competition as well as the female. Race the European Cup was first held in 1969 and has taken place since every two year
Summary styles
- When the left arm leaves the water with your elbow bent while the right arm  pushes the water.
- The left arm rises from the water with your elbow pointing upwards. The right arm moves deeper into the water.
- When the left arm enters the water, right arm rows downwards into the water.
- When the right arm  leaves the water with the elbow bent, left arm pushes the water and does the same action.  During this cycle the legs move constantly.

- Arms extended in front of the head and legs extended backwards.
- The arms move away from the body and push down at the same time.
- The arms are joined to the body below his waist.
- When the arms extend forward the legs shrink forward, outwards and backwards in an energetic movement, known as "frog kick".
- After this movement the arms and legs extended back.



- With the face looking up, the swimmer lifts the right arm up with your thumb pointing up. The left arm begins to push down and away from the body.
- The extended right arm is raised while the hand turns, so that the thumb points down. The left arm phase starts strong paddling underwater.
- The right arm remains extended and searches for water with the little finger The left arm thrusts into the water, so that the hand emerges from the water near his left leg.
- The cycle continues with the other arm. During this cycle the legs move constantly